Solomon & Hoover CPAs, PLLC Blog - Financial Guidance to Help Your Business Succeed

Solomon & Hoover CPAs, PLLC Blog

Financial Guidance to Help Your Business Succeed

Tax calendar

Posted by admin On May 9th

Tax calendar


April 18 — Besides being the last day to file (or extend) your 2015 personal return and pay any tax that is due, 2016 first quarter estimated tax payments for individuals, trusts, and calendar-year corporations are due today. So are 2015 returns for trusts and calendar-year estates, partnerships, and LLCs, plus any final contribution you plan to make to an IRA or Education Savings Account for 2015. SEP and Keogh contributions are also due today if your return is not being extended.

June 15 — Second quarter estimated tax payments for individuals, trusts, and calendar-year corporations are due today.

Could your debt relief turn into a tax defeat?




Restructuring debt has become a common approach to personal financial management. But many people fail to realize that there’s often a tax impact to debt relief. And if you don’t anticipate it, a winning tax return may turn into a losing one.


Less debt, more income

Income tax applies to all forms of income — including what’s referred to as “cancellation-of-debt” (COD) income. Think of it this way: If a creditor forgives a debt, you avoid the expense of making the payments, which increases your net income.

Debt forgiveness isn’t the only way to generate a tax liability, though. You can have COD income if a creditor reduces the interest rate or gives you more time to pay. Calculating the amount of income can be complex but, essentially, by making it easier for you to repay the debt, the creditor confers a taxable economic benefit.

Mortgage matters

You can also have COD income in connection with a mortgage foreclosure, including a short sale or deed in lieu of foreclosure. Here, the tax consequences depend on which of the following two categories the mortgage falls into:

1. Nonrecourse. Here the lender’s sole remedy in the event of default is to take possession of the home. In other words, you’re not personally liable if the foreclosure proceeds are less than your outstanding loan balance. Foreclosure on a nonrecourse mortgage doesn’t produce COD income.

2. Recourse. This type of foreclosure can trigger COD tax liability if the lender forgives the portion of the loan that’s not satisfied. In a short sale, the lender permits you to sell the property for less than the amount you owe and accepts the sale proceeds in satisfaction of your mortgage. A deed in lieu of foreclosure means you convey the property to the lender in satisfaction of your debt. In either case, if the lender agrees to cancel the excess debt, the transaction is treated like a foreclosure for tax purposes — that is, a recourse mortgage may generate COD income.

Keep in mind that COD income is taxable as ordinary income, even if the debt is related to long-term capital gains property. And, in some cases, foreclosure can trigger both COD income and a capital gain or loss (depending on your tax basis in the property and the property’s market value).

Exceptions vs. exclusions

Several types of canceled debt are considered nontaxable “exceptions” — for example, debt cancellation that’s considered a gift (such as forgiveness of a family loan). Certain student loans are also considered exceptions — as long as they’re canceled in exchange for the recipient’s commitment to public service.

Other types of canceled debt qualify as “exclusions.” For instance, homeowners can exclude up to $2 million in COD income in connection with qualified principal residence indebtedness. A recent tax law change extended this exclusion through 2016, modifying it to apply to mortgage forgiveness that occurs in 2017 as long as it’s granted pursuant to a written agreement entered into in 2016. Other exclusions include certain canceled debts relating to bankruptcy and insolvency.

Complex rules

The rules applying to COD income are complex. So if you’re planning to restructure your debt this year, let us help you manage the tax impact.

Go, save green with sustainable tax breaks

Posted by admin On May 9th

Go, save green with sustainable tax breaks



Many people want to do something, however small, to contribute to a healthier environment. There are many ways to do so and, for some of them, you can even save a few tax dollars for your efforts.

Indeed, with the passage of the Protecting Americans from Tax Hikes Act of 2015 (the PATH Act) late last year, a couple of specific ways to go green and claim a tax break have been made permanent or extended. Let’s take a closer look at each.

Not driving for dollars

Air pollution is a problem in many areas of the country. Among the biggest contributors are vehicle emissions. So it follows that cutting down on the number of vehicles on the road can, in turn, diminish air pollution.

To help accomplish this, many people choose to commute to work via van pools or using public transportation. And, helpfully, the PATH Act is doing its part as well. The law made permanent the requirement that limits on the amounts that can be excluded from an employee’s wages for income and payroll tax purposes be the same for both parking benefits and van pooling / mass transit benefits.

Before the PATH Act’s parity provision, the monthly limit for 2015 was only $130 for van pooling / mass transit benefits. But, because of the new law, the 2015 monthly limit for these benefits was boosted to the $250 parking benefit limit and the 2016 limit is $255.

Sprucing up the homestead

Energy consumption can also have a negative impact on the environment and use up limited natural resources. Many homeowners want to reduce their energy consumption for environmental reasons or simply to cut their utility bills.

The PATH Act lends a helping hand here, too, by extending through 2016 the credit for purchases of residential energy property. This includes items such as:

  • New high-efficiency heating and air conditioning systems,
  • Qualifying forms of insulation,
  • Energy-efficient exterior windows and doors, and
  • High-efficiency water heaters and stoves that burn biomass fuel.

The provision allows a credit of 10% of eligible costs for energy-efficient insulation, windows and doors. A credit is also available for 100% of eligible costs for energy-efficient heating and cooling equipment and water heaters, up to a lifetime limit of $500 (with no more than $200 from windows and skylights).

Doing it all

Going green and saving some green on your tax bill? Yes, you can do both. Van pooling or taking public transportation and improving your home’s energy efficiency are two prime examples. Please contact us for more information about how to claim these tax breaks or identify other ways to save this year.

A product/services remix could get your sales moving



If your company’s sales results were a dance floor, how would it look? Are the numbers jumping off the page, dazzling you with their lively performances? Or are they slow, sluggish — perhaps even disappearing entirely? To keep the party moving, every business needs to regularly remix its line of products or services.

There are many potential causes of a sales slowdown. But these troubles aren’t all bad — they can help you shape the sound of your revised offerings. Start with the obvious: Are your customers drifting away? Conduct market research to find out whether they still like what you’re selling or if their needs have changed. Evolution is normal, so be ready to adjust your menu to keep pace.

Also look into how long you’ve been offering the same products or services, and whether you’ve saturated the market. Some things have enduring value, but demand for others can wane as new products take the spotlight. Regular evaluations can help you decide whether you should:

  • Test a product or service in a different market or geographic area,
  • “Reinvent” a product or service (for instance, by repackaging or renaming it), or
  • Discontinue it.

Finally, don’t ignore the economy — both national and local. Market conditions can influence the sales of even the strongest products or services. Try to bolster the strongest ones, but also consider discontinuing weak ones or adding new ones that reflect the strength of the local economy.

An effective remix of your products or services can turn a sad song into a happy tune. For help making the right tweaks, please give us a call.

Training day: Reimbursing employees’ education expenses



Naturally, most employee training occurs in-house. But area colleges and trade schools may also provide a great source of education in professional development. And if you reimburse employees for their education expenses at these institutions, you and your employees may be able to save valuable tax dollars.


Offer a fringe benefit

Payment of an employee’s expenses usually results in taxable wages subject to income and payroll taxes. However, reimbursements and direct payments of job-related education costs are excludable from workers’ wages as working condition fringe benefits. Furthermore, you can deduct these costs as employee education costs (as opposed to wages), so you don’t have to withhold income tax or pay payroll taxes on them.

To qualify as a working condition fringe benefit, the education expenses must be ones that employees would be allowed to deduct as a business expense if they’d paid them directly and weren’t reimbursed. Basically, this means the education must relate to the workers’ occupations and not qualify them for new jobs. There’s no ceiling on the amount your workers can receive tax-free, and you can classify education costs as not subject to payroll taxes if the IRS considers the expenses to be working condition fringe benefits.

Establish a program

Another approach to reimbursing education costs in a tax-efficient manner is to establish a formal written educational assistance program. These programs can cover both job-related and non-job-related education. Assuming it meets eligibility requirements, such a program can allow employees to exclude from income up to $5,250 (or an unlimited amount if the education is job related) annually in education reimbursements for costs such as:

  • Undergraduate or graduate-level tuition,
  • Fees,
  • Books, and
  • Equipment and supplies.

The IRS, however, won’t allow reimbursement of materials that employees can keep after the courses end (except for textbooks). You can deduct up to $5,250 (or an unlimited amount if the education is job related) of education reimbursements as an employee benefit expense. And you don’t have to withhold income tax or pay payroll taxes on these reimbursements.

To pass muster with the IRS, such a program must avoid discrimination in favor of highly compensated workers, their spouses and their dependents, and it can’t provide more than 5% of its total annual benefits to shareholders, owners and their dependents. In addition, you must provide reasonable notice about the program to all eligible employees that outlines the type and amount of assistance available to workers.

Discover the hidden advantage

Another “hidden” advantage to reimbursing education costs is attracting new hires and retaining them. The labor markets in many industries are competitive right now, so it’s important not to overlook ways to differentiate yourself from other companies looking to hire from the same pool. Moreover, keeping an engaged, well-trained staff in place enables you to avoid constantly enduring the high costs of hiring.

Also bear in mind the “Millennial” perspective. Prospective employees between the ages of 18 and 35, so-called “Millennials,” make up a significant portion of the labor market now. This generation has its own distinctive traits and preferences toward working — one of which is a need for ongoing challenges and education, particularly when it comes to technology.

Keep them on board

If your company has employees who want to take their professional skill sets to the next level, don’t let them go to a competitor to get there. By reimbursing education costs as a fringe benefit or setting up an educational assistance program, you can keep your staff well trained and evolving toward the future and save taxes, too. Feel free to contact us about how to ensure you’ll enjoy the tax advantages of doing so.

Consolidate accounts and simplify your financial life




If you’ve accumulated many bank, investment and other financial accounts over the years, you might consider consolidating some of them. Having multiple accounts requires you to spend more time tracking and reconciling financial activities and can make it harder to keep a handle on how much you have and whether your money is being invested advantageously.

Start by identifying the accounts that offer you the best combination of excellent customer service, convenience, lower fees and higher returns. Hold on to these and consider closing the rest, keeping in mind the bank account amounts you’ll be consolidating. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation generally insures $250,000 per depositor, per insured bank. So if consolidation means that your balance might exceed that amount, it’s better to keep multiple accounts. You should also keep accounts with different beneficiaries separate.

When closing accounts, make sure you stop automatic payments or deposits and destroy checks and cards associated with them. To prevent any future disputes, obtain letters from the financial institutions stating that your accounts have been closed. Closing an account generally takes several weeks.

How you can help prevent tax-related identity theft

Posted by admin On February 8th

How you can help prevent tax-related identity theft

Blue Hood



Tax-related fraud isn’t a new crime, but tax preparation software, e-filing and increased availability of personal data have made tax-related identity theft increasingly easy to perpetrate. The IRS is taking steps to reduce such fraud, but taxpayers must play their part, too.

How they do it

Criminals perpetrate tax identity theft by using stolen Social Security numbers and other personal information to file tax returns in their victims’ names. Naturally, the fake returns claim that the filer is owed a refund — and the bigger, the better.

To ensure they’re a step ahead of taxpayers filing legitimate returns and employers submitting W-2 and 1099 forms, the thieves file early in the tax season. They usually request that refunds be made to debit cards, which are hard for the IRS to trace once they’re distributed.

IRS takes action

The increasing rate of tax-related fraud — not to mention the well-publicized 2015 IRS data breach — has spurred government agencies and private sector businesses to act. This past June, a coalition made up of the IRS, state tax administrators, tax preparation services and payroll and tax product processors announced a new program with five initiatives:

  1. Taxpayer identification. Coalition members will review transmission data such as Internet Protocol numbers.
  2. Fraud identification. Members will share fraud leads and aggregated tax return information.
  3. Information assessment. The Refund Fraud Information Sharing and Assessment Center will help public and private sector members share information.
  4. Cybersecurity framework. Members will be required to adopt the National Institute of Standards and Technology cybersecurity framework.
  5. Taxpayer awareness and communication. Members will increase efforts to inform the public about identity theft and protecting personal data.

Your role in preventing fraud

But the IRS and tax preparation professionals can’t fight fraud without your help. Be sure to keep your Social Security card secure, and if businesses (including financial institutions and medical providers) request your Social Security number, ensure they need it for a legitimate purpose and have taken precautions to keep your data safe. Also regularly review your credit report. You can obtain free copies from all three credit bureaus once a year.


Hoping to grow your business?

Start with the financing



Let’s say you’ve drafted a strategic growth plan that discusses in detail the new products and markets that you hope will power your company’s future growth. You’ve performed extensive market research and are confident that your offerings will appeal to customers and that you know how to reach them. Unfortunately, if your plan covers only such topics as product development, manufacturing, distribution, sales and marketing, it probably won’t succeed.

To avoid potential cash-flow issues and other financial crises, your strategic plan should specify precisely how you’ll fund your growth initiatives. If your company is sitting on a pile of cash just waiting to be invested, you’re lucky. Most businesses must finance growth with equity or debt.

Equity isn’t necessarily easy

Using your own equity in the business to raise capital can be a good solution. However, selling ownership to outside investors, such as private equity firms and venture capitalists, isn’t always as easy as it sounds. For starters, you’ll need a professional appraisal of your company and you’ll have to find investors who believe in your growth strategy — and ability to execute it.

Equity financing doesn’t need to be repaid. But, depending on how much equity you sell and how successful your company is in reaching its goals, equity can end up being expensive in the long run. For example, you may need to give up some control to investors, which can lead to disputes over major decisions.

Price of debt

Debt financing, on the other hand, does have to be repaid, and will cost you interest. Depending on the size and financial health of your company and the nature of your growth plans, you may be able to qualify for:

  • Term loans,
  • Commercial mortgages,
  • Construction loans,
  • Equipment leases, and
  • Small Business Administration loans.

Banks require borrowers to provide detailed financial information and pledge collateral, possibly including your home and other personal assets. They may also hold you to covenants that, for example, prevent you from borrowing additional money until their loan is repaid.

Reasonable expectations

Your financial advisor can help you weigh the advantages and drawbacks of the financing options available to your business. They can also help you evaluate your growth assumptions to ensure that your profit expectations are reasonable.

Tax calendar

Posted by admin On February 8th

Tax calendar






January 15

  • Individual taxpayers’ final 2015 estimated tax payment is due unless Form 1040 is filed by February 2, 2016, and any tax due is paid with the return.

February 1

  • Most employers must file Form 941 (Employer’s Quarterly Federal Tax Return) to report Medicare, Social Security, and income taxes withheld in the fourth quarter of 2015. If your tax liability is less than $2,500, you can pay it in full with a timely filed return. If you deposited the tax for the quarter in full and on time, you have until February 10 to file the return. Employers who have an estimated annual employment tax liability of $1,000 or less may be eligible to file Form 944 (Employer’s Annual Federal Tax Return).
  • Give your employees their copies of Form W-2 for 2015. If an employee agreed to receive Form W-2 electronically, have it posted on the website and notify the employee.
  • Give annual information statements to recipients of certain payments you made during 2015. You can use the appropriate version of Form 1099 or other information return. Form 1099 can be filed electronically with the consent of the recipient.
  • File Form 940 [Employer’s Annual Federal Unemployment (FUTA) Tax Return] for 2015. If your undeposited tax is $500 or less, you can either pay it with your return or deposit it. If it is more than $500, you must deposit it. However, if you deposited the tax for the year in full and on time, you have until February 10 to file the return.
  • File Form 945 (Annual Return of Withheld Federal Income Tax) for 2015 to report income tax withheld on all nonpayroll items, including backup withholding and withholding on pensions, annuities, IRAs, etc. If your tax liability is less than $2,500, you can pay it in full with a timely filed return. If you deposited the tax for the year in full and on time, you have until February 10 to file the return.
  • File Form 943 (Employer’s Annual Federal Tax Return for Agricultural Employees) to report Social Security and Medicare taxes and withheld income for 2015. If your tax liability is less than $2,500, you can pay it in full with a timely filed return. If you deposited the tax for the year in full and on time, you have until February 10 to file the return.

February 29

  • The government’s copy of Form 1099 series returns (along with the appropriate transmittal form) should be sent in by today. However, if these forms will be filed electronically, the due date is extended to March 31.
  • The government’s copy of Form W-2 series returns (along with the appropriate transmittal Form W-3) should be sent in by today. However, if these forms will be filed electronically, the due date is extended to March 31.

March 15

  • 2015 income tax returns must be filed or extended for calendar-year corporations. If the return is not extended, this is also the last day for calendar-year corporations to make 2015 contributions to pension and profit-sharing plans.

Road rules: Deducting business travel expenses

Posted by admin On February 8th

Road rules: Deducting business travel expenses




If you travel for business, you’ll want to ensure that the expenses you incur while doing so are tax deductible. IRS rules are strict, and improperly substantiated deductions can cost you.


Away from home rule

Generally, ordinary and necessary expenses of traveling away from home for work are deductible. For the expenses to qualify, you must be away from your tax home — your regular place of business — substantially longer than an ordinary day’s work and need to sleep or rest to meet the work demands while away.

You don’t necessarily have to stay away from home overnight to satisfy the rest requirement. If you travel for business purposes throughout the day but return home that night to sleep, you may still be considered “away from home” for tax purposes. In this case, expenses you incur for such trips are still deductible.

Also, the trip must be primarily for business purposes. If your trip involves both business and personal activities, a portion of the travel expenses may be nondeductible personal expenses.

Deductible travel expenses

Most airfare, taxis, rental cars, lodging, meals (with exceptions), tips and business phone calls are tax deductible. But you can’t write off “lavish or extravagant” travel expenses, so be prepared to prove that your patronage of a high-end restaurant or five-star hotel was reasonable under the circumstances.

Generally, only 50% of business-related meal and entertainment expenses are deductible. If your employer reimburses you under an accountable plan (see below), the 50% limit applies to your employer rather than you.

You must substantiate deductions for lodging — and for other travel expenses greater than $75 — with adequate records. These include credit card receipts, canceled checks or bills. Records should indicate the amount, date, place, essential character of the expense and business purpose.

Be accountable

If your employer reimburses your travel expenses, an accountable plan enables the company to deduct the reimbursements, but the reimbursements aren’t included in your income as salary and aren’t subject to FICA and other payroll tax obligations. Although you may still be able to deduct some or all business travel expenses without an accountable plan, such deductions are available only if you itemize and your expenses and other miscellaneous deductions exceed 2% of your adjusted gross income.

For reimbursed expenses to qualify under an accountable plan, you must have paid or incurred them while on company business and reported the expenses to your employer within a reasonable time (usually within 60 days). You also must return any excess reimbursements — usually within 120 days after they were paid or incurred.

Generally, to be reimbursable on a tax-free basis, your travel must meet the “away from home” rule discussed earlier. However, your employer can reimburse local lodging expenses if the lodging is temporary and necessary for you to participate in or be available for a bona fide business meeting or function. The expenses involved must be otherwise deductible by you as a business expense (or be expenses that would otherwise be deductible if you paid them).

Exceptions happen

As with most IRS rules, there are exceptions to which travel expenses you can deduct. If you’re unsure about some expenses, contact your tax advisor.